Last Updated on April 18, 2021
Do you want to know how to forge weld? Forge welding is one of the basic techniques that you should learn to work like a professional blacksmith. However, it is a bit tricky to learn but once you have learned this skill, it will become invaluable. This technique needs excellent coordination if your eye-hand. If you want to know about forge welding, this post will assist you to become a pro. You just need to follow the guidance here.
How to Forge Weld: Follow the Step-wise Guidance
Forge welding has used to join two metal pieces together. Though it sounds like welding but they are not similar. In the forge welding process, you can easily join two separate types of metals by heating and forcing them. You can forge any two types of metals into one by applying proper heat, pressure, and method.
Basic Safety Precautions
Your safety should be your prime concern. Before you start to work, you should ensure your safety first. So, you can follow the safety precautions mentioned below
- Gloves – You need to use safety gloves to safe your hands.
- Didymium Glasses – Without using didymium glasses, you cannot determine the desired temperature of the material. If you do not use the proper glasses, you will miss out the required temperature and your metal will oxidize.
- Flame Resistant Clothes – These fire resistant clothing help to protect you from unwanted accidents. Besides, these cloths keep you safe from catching up fire.
- Safety Boots – As you are dealing with heavy metals during welding, so you should wear safety boots. Except weight, safety boots also protect you from unwanted fire accident. Soften metal may accidently fall on your feet while welding, so these pairs of safety boots keep you protected.
- Ear Plugs – You should use the ear plugs to protect your ears from noise. As forge welding needs hammer to perfection. Hammering causes excessive noise. So, if you do not use proper ear plugs, you may have permanent ear damage.
After taking all these safety precautions, now you are ready to start your work. So, follow these steps mentioned below:
Step – 1: Collect All The Essential Equipment First
It is important to collect the essential equipment (borax, container, forge, hammer, and so on) to perform this task. It also makes the process not only easier but also enhances the work quality.
Step – 2: Heat The Material
Welding heat may vary on the type of metal you have used. You need to determine the forging temperature before you start to heat up your materials. It will turn yellow in high heat. But if you do not stop in this point and continue to heat the material, then the metal will start to oxidize because of carbon. Overall, it may ruin the metal. With regular practice, you will become familiar with the color and the forge welding temperature.
Step – 3: Fluxing
In this step, you need to sprinkle your metal with flux. Contaminated surfaces will cause weaker joints. Besides, it will enhance the metal’s melting temperature. It is better to use a flux with appropriate skill and experience. You can use an oxygen-free burner for welding. You can follow the steps for fluxing the surface of the material –
- You need to remove your materials to sprinkle flux on its surface until it becomes saturated.
- You can also submerge these materials in a container to ensure all the surfaces properly covered with flux.
Flux works as a reducing agent to prevent oxidation. Because oxidation causes deposition on the surface of the material and prevents welding. It is very important when forge welding.
Step – 4: Heating
Once you have done with fluxing, now you need to keep the metal material again in the forge to give a bright yellow heat. Remember, you should not leave the metal in the forge for a long period of time. If your metal starts to spark, then it indicates your metal is contaminated. All the materials have different welding temperatures. So, you need to do your research and determine your metal’s welding temperature before you start your work.
It is better to weld your metal in a reducing environment. Generally, the coal forge has used as the most common reducing atmosphere. As the environment has less oxygen and an iron-oxide layer (wustite) has formed on the metal surface. The forge welding temperature may vary based on the types of metal you select for this process. Though different metals have their own required welding temperature. But most of the time, this welding temperature can alter because of the impurities.
Step – 5: Observe The Changing Color
Your metal will turn to a lemon-yellow color and it will look like shimmery. You should use didymium glasses when you look at the fire. You just need to wait for yellow color. Once it has turned to yellow color, you just have reached the appropriate temperature. But in case you continue to heat your metal after this stage, it will turn to sparkle.
The carbon will start to oxidize and ruin your metal. Once you have reached the austenitizing temperature, you will observe a rapid diffusion. So, you need to pay more attention. The carbon diffusion rate will enhance with the rising temperature.
Step – 6: Remove The Metal
After turning your metal to yellow color, it is high time to remove the metal from heat. You should conduct the forge welding method before the decarburization takes place. The faster execution of this method will help to prevent unwanted softening of the metal and also ensure sturdiness.
Step – 7: Join And Hammer To Perfection
In this step, you need to fuse the metals together. It will give a professional touch to your metal. You need to keep the pieces together with a metal wire up to the initial weld takes place. Then you can use a power hammer to hammer it properly. You can also use a hydraulic press.
If you follow and apply these steps, you can successfully learn how to forge weld. Besides, you will get a solid weld at the end of your work. Remember, you should not hit your metal too hard. Thick metal piece needs more strength and power compared to the thin work piece. You should carefully hammer it and should not miss out any space. But you do not need to apply excessive strength otherwise it may displace the weld. So, take all the safety precautions and start to weld like a pro.